Mencipta Ruang, Menggapai Langit: Pendidikan Publik Kritis dan Ruang Alternatif Minoritas di Yogyakarta dan Bandung

Authors

  • Meike Lusye Karolus Universitas Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Yogyakarta
  • Firdhan Aria Wijaya Panggung Minoritas

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14203/jmb.v22i1.938

Keywords:

akar rumput, kelompok minoritas, disintegrasi, intoleransi

Abstract

Since 2016, there have been several cases in intolerance towards minority groups in Yogyakarta and Bandung. Those actions were triggered by conservative-extremist religious groups which are seemingly becoming powerful source for disintegration as well as threats to the freedom of expression and diversity. With the lack of protection from regional government apparatus, initiative grassroots movements tend to find alternative ways that open possibilities to create a space for minority groups. In Yogyakarta, there is Pemetik Buah Khuldi, a community which provides alternative critical public education related to diversity issues and democracy. Meanwhile in Bandung, there is Panggung Minoritas, an initiative that creates a safe space to gender and sexual minorities meet, share, learn and discuss about gender and sexuality topics. Both groups have similar purposes which cultivate awareness and support minorities rights through education, support groups, and creative activities. By examining both independent community’s activities through ethnographic approach, we analyze how these groups are becoming prevalent in the area of Java where have high numbers of intolerances and the reason why they prefer grassroots movement to government-approved groups to support minority groups. Furthermore, this article seeks to contribute a relevant perspective on recent situation of marginal groups and part of our critical reflection on responding of common project failure to recognise diversity.

 

Keywords: grassroots, minority group, disintegration, intolerance

 

Abstrak

 

Sejak tahun 2016, intoleransi terhadap kelompok minoritas marak muncul di Yogyakarta dan Bandung. Tindakan-tindakan itu dipicu oleh sederet kelompok agama tertentu yang konservatif nan ekstremis. Kelompok-kelompok tersebut berpotensi menjadi sumber kuat untuk disintegrasi bangsa dan ancaman terhadap kebebasan berekspresi dan keberagaman. Dengan kurangnya perlindungan dari aparat pemerintah daerah, inisiatif gerakan akar rumput cenderung menempuh cara-cara alternatif untuk menciptakan ruang bagi kelompok-kelompok minoritas. Di Yogyakarta, terdapat Pemetik Buah Khuldi, sebuah komunitas yang menyediakan alternatif pendidikan publik kritis terkait dengan isu keberagaman dan demokrasi. Sementara itu, di Bandung, terdapat Panggung Minoritas, sebuah komunitas yang berinisiatif menciptakan ruang yang aman bagi minoritas gender dan seksual untuk bertemu, berbagi, belajar, dan mendiskusikan topik gender dan seksualitas. Kedua kelompok tersebut memiliki tujuan yang sama, yaitu menumbuhkan kesadaran dan mendukung minoritas melalui dialog, kepedulian kolektif, dan kegiatan kreatif. Dengan menelusuri aktivitas kedua komunitas tersebut melalui pendekatan etnografi, kami menganalisis bagaimana keduanya hadir di tengah meningkatnya jumlah intoleransi di pulau Jawa dan motivasi di balik mengapa mereka lebih memilih gerakan akar rumput daripada kelompok yang sah untuk membantu mereka. Selain itu, artikel ini berupaya memberikan kontribusi untuk mengisi perspektif yang relevan mengenai situasi terkini kelompok marginal dan bagian dari refleksi kritis dalam merespons kegagalan mengenali keberagaman.

 

Kata kunci: akar rumput, kelompok minoritas, disintegrasi, intoleransi

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ahmed, S. (2006). Queer phenomenology: Orientations, objects, and others. Durham: Duke University Press.

Browne, K. dan Nash, C. J. (2010). Queer Methods and Methodologies: Intersecting Queer Theories and Social Science Research. UK & USA: Ashgate Publishing Company.

Butler. J. (2004). Undoing Gender. New York: Routledge.

Das, S. (2011). The Singing Subaltern, Parallax, 17:3, hal. 4-18, DOI:10.1080/13534645.2011.584409.

de Jong, E. & Twikromo, A. (2017). Friction within harmony: Everyday dynamics and negotiations of diversity in Yogyakarta. Journal of Southeast Asia Studies, 48 (1), pp. 71-90.

Edelman, M. (2001). Social Movements: Changing Paradigms And Forms and Politics. Annual Review of Anthropology, 30(1), 285-317. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.anthro.30.1.285.

Festenstein, M. (2004). Deliberative Democracy and Two Models of Pragmatism. European Journal of Social Theory, 7(3): 291–306. DOI: 10.1177/1368431004044194.

Formichi, C. (2012) Islam and The Making of Nation: Kartosuwiryo and Political Islam in 20th Century Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press

Freedman, A & Tiburzi, R. (2012). Progress and Caution: Indonesia's Democracy. Asian Affairs: An American Review, 39:3, 131-156, DOI:10.1080/00927678.2012.704832.

Gieseking, J. J. (2013). A Queer Geographer’s Life as an Introduction to Queer Theory , Space, and Time in Queer Geographies: Beirut, Tijuana, Copenhagen. Roskilde: Museum of Art Contemporary, 4-31.

Hardiman, FB. (2009). Demokrasi Deliberatif: Menimbang ‘Negara Hukum’ dan ‘Ruang Publik’ dalam Teori Diskursus Jürgen Habermas. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.

Halberstam, J. (1998). Female Masculinity. USA. Duke University Press.

Halbertsam, J. (2011). The Queer Art of Failure. Dunham: Duke University Press.

Hiddleston, J. (2007). Spivak's ‘Echo’: theorizing otherness and the space of response. Textual Practice, 21:4, 623-640. DOI: 10.1080/09502360701642359.

Kristeva, J. (1984). Revolution in Poetic Language. New York: Columbia University Press.

Spivak, G. C. (1988). Can the Subaltern Speak? in Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture by Cary Nelson dan Lawrence Grossberg (ed). Macmillan Education Ltd: London, hal. 271-313.

Nasir, M. A. (2014). The ʿUlamāʾ, Fatāwā and Challenges to Democracy in Contemporary Indonesia. Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, 25:4, 489-505. DOI:10.1080/09596410.2014.926598.

Parker, L. (2017). Intersections of Gender/Sex, Multiculturalism and Religion: Young Muslim Minority Women in Contemporary Bali, Asian Studies Review, 41:3, 441-458, DOI:10.1080/10357823.2017.1332004.

Suryana, A. (2019). State Officials’ Entanglement with Vigilante Groups in Violence against Ahmadiyah and Shi’a Communities in Indonesia. Asian Studies Review, 43:3, 475-492, DOI: 10.1080/10357823.2019.1633273.

Soedirgo, J. (2018). Informal networks and religious intolerance: how clientelism incentivizes the discrimination of the Ahmadiyah in Indonesia. Citizenship Studies, 22:2,191-207, DOI: 10.1080/13621025.2018.1445490.

Published

2020-04-30

Issue

Section

ARTICLES