<-- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> PERSPEKTIF SOSIOLOGIS DALAM PENANGGULANGAN BENCANA SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT | Pramono | Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya

PERSPEKTIF SOSIOLOGIS DALAM PENANGGULANGAN BENCANA SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Rudy Pramono

Abstract


Abstract

Studies on disasters in the recent decade tend to shift from problems and management to human and community approaches. This paper aims to describe disaster management from sociological perspective. It discusses various understandings, responses as well as the management patterns of local communities and other actors (organizations), who mostly experience contestations on the disaster management. Disaster management offers multidisciplinary approach combining concepts, conclusions, and analysis of sociology, public administration and other disciplines. Disasters are mostly related with individual’s or community’s knowledges as well as their strategies to cope with the hazards. Planning and preparedness activities to manage the disasters are more sustainable learning processes rather than end goals. Sociological perspective is not only knowledge, but also a mutual understanding process to arrange programs, priorities and strategies to cope with the hazards. The disaster management strategy incorporating human and communities are more effective; therefore, it should be embedded to their daily lives.

Keywords: hazards, disasters, sociological, contestation, response

Abstrak

Kajian tentang bencana dalam dekade terakhir menunjukkan terjadinya perubahan orientasi, yang semula lebih banyak membahas masalah teknis tentang kejadian yang memicu bencana dan penanganan korban bencana menjadi pendekatan yang menekankan pada pendekatan manusia dan masyarakat. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk memberikan uraian perspektif sosiologis tentang pengelolaan bencana, yang membahas keragaman pemahaman, tanggapan dan pola masyarakat lokal menghadapi bencana dan pemahaman, tanggapan dan pola aktor atau organisasi eksternal dalam menghadapi, yang seringkali berkontestasi untuk dijadikan rujukan dalam pengelolaan bencana. Pengelolaan bencana merupakan pendekatan multidisiplin antara konsep, simpulan dan analisis dari sosiologi, administrasi publik dan berbagai disiplin ilmu lain. Dalam berbagai kejadian, bencana berkaitan dengan bagaimana pola pengetahuan individu atau masyarakat terhadap suatu ancaman bencana dan bagaimana pola mereka dalam menghadapi ancaman tersebut. Kegiatan perencanaan dan kesiapsiagaan menghadapi bencana merupakan proses belajar yang berkelanjutan menghadapi suatu ancaman, bukan tujuan yang ada akhirnya. Perspektif sosiologis bukan hanya sekedar pengetahuan, namun suatu proses saling memahami antarpihak terkait dalam menyusun kegiatan program, prioritas dan strategi implementasi pengelolaan suatu ancamanan berncana secara berkelanjutan. Jika strategi pengelolaan bencana menjadi acuan dalam tanggapan perilaku manusia atau kelompok sosial dalam menghadapi suatu ancaman bencana menjadi lebih efektif, maka strategi tersebut perlu dikembangkan dan diterapkan menjadi bagian hidup manusia atau kelompok yang mengalami suatu ancaman bencana dalam kehidupan sehari-hari.

Kata kunci: ancaman, bencana, sosiologis, kontestasi, respon

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14203/jmb.v18i1.342

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Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya

Pusat Penelitian Kemasyarakatan dan Kebudayaan - Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (P2KK-LIPI)
Research Center for Society and Culture - Indonesian Institute of Sciences
Widya Graha Lantai VI & IX
Jl. Jend. Gatot Subroto No.10 Jakarta Selatan
12710

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