Karakter Keberagamaan di Java Pasca Geertz

Authors

  • Gutomo Bayu Aji Peneliti pedesaan, pendiri Perkumpulan PASaL

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14203/jmb.v22i1.942

Keywords:

keberagaman, otoritarianisme keagamaan, toleransi, dialog agama, rekonsiliasi, marjinal

Abstract

Karakter keberagaman Geertz yang sering digunakan sebagai gambaran situasi keagamaan di Indonesia telah berubah secara drastis setelah peristiwa politik tahun 1965. Konteks perang dingin yang menggunakan Wahabi-salafisme sebagai instrumen pengendalian komunisme telah menciptakan tekanan dan ancaman yang memungkinkan terbentuknya otoritarianisme keagamaan. Dalam struktur dominasi dan sub-ordinasi, pemerliharaan otoritarianisme itu dilakukan melalui pemeliharaan agama resmi yang diakui pemerintah dan penggunaan diskursus toleransi sebagai instrumen hegemoni terhadap kepercayaan-kepercayaan sub-ordinat. Gus Dur merupakan aktor yang memainkan peranan penting dalam pembongkaran otoritarianisme itu. Tetapi sepeninggalnya, kecenderungan otoritarianisme semakin mengeras ketika bersinggungan dengan oligarkhi yang menguasai sumber daya ekonomi-politik. Kelompok pedesaan terutama petani kecil dan buruh tani adalah yang paling dipinggirkan dengan instrumen penjinakan ganda yaitu revolusi hijau dan otoritarianisme keagamaan.

 

Kata kunci: keberagaman, otoritarianisme keagamaan, toleransi, dialog agama, rekonsiliasi, marjinal.

 

Abstract

 

Geertz’s religious characterization underwent drastic change since the ‘65 event. Western influences and the use of Wahabi-salafism as instruments of religious politics have changed the open model of religious life. After that event, the model of religious life turns into closed; formed on the basis of a political security agenda and limited to five official religions.. This article views the model as the basis for the formation of an authoritarian religious character, among others, which gives space to modernists to control the political infrastructure of religious and state religious resources, strengthen limited official religious arrangements, allow pressures and threats to work on religious conversion, purification of traditions and labeling untruth. In addition, the model is used to produce a discourse of tolerance which has the following tendencies: the discourse of tolerance originating from Western political philosophy is contradictory to the religious norms that are growing in Indonesian society, and the discourse operates in a limited manner among official religions as the dominant discourse that is dominant creating formal-exclusivism that strengthens the authoritarian religious character.

 

Key words: diversity, authoritarianism, tolerance, religious dialogue, reconciliation, marginality

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Arif, Sirojuddin. 2018. Cursed by Oil? Rural Threats, Agricultural Policy Changes and The Impact of Oil on Indonesia’s and Nigeria’s Rural Develiopment. Journal of International Development J. Int. Dev. (2018) Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/jid.3399.

Abinales, Patricio N. 2016. Cosmopolitanism, marginality, Prokem: Benedict Anderson’s A Life Beyond Boundaries: A Memoir, Critical Asian Studies, 48:4, 614-626, DOI: 10.1080/14672715.2016.1239425.

Barton, Greg. 1997. Indonesia's Nurcholish Madjid and Abdurrahman Wahid as intellectual Ulama: The meeting of Islamic traditionalism and modernism in neo‐modernist thought. Islam and Christian‐Muslim Relations, 8:3, 323-350, DOI: 10.1080/09596419708721130.

Beatty, A. 1999. Varieties of Javanese Religion: an Anthropological Account. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Boogert, Jocen van dem. 2017. The Role of Slametan in the Discourse of Javanese Islam. Indonesia and The Malay World. 45:133, 352-372.

Bruneissen, Martin van. 2002. Genealogies of Islamic Radicalism in Post Suharto Indonesia. South East Asia Research, 10:2, 117-154.

Coruch, Mellisa. 2013. Shifting conceptions of state regulation of religion: the Indonesian Draft Law on Inter-religious Harmony. Global Change, Peace & Security, 25:3, 265-282, DOI: 10.1080/14781158.2013.764859.

Forst, Rainer (2010). Two stories about toleration. Recon Online Working Paper 2010/15, August 2010.http://www.reconproject.eu/projectweb/portalproject/AbstractRECONwp1015.html

Geertz, Clifford. 1960. The Religion of Java. The University of Chicago Press. The Free Press, USA.

Hefner, Robert W. 1987. Islamizing Java? Religion and Politics in Rural East Java. The Journal of Asean Studies Vol 46, No. 43.

Jorgensen, Trond. 2014. Tolerance – a Culturally Dependent Concept? FLEKS, Scandinavian Journal of Inter-cultural Theory and Practice, Vol. 1 Tolerance No. 2.

Munjid, Achmad. 2014. Building a Shared Home: Investigating the Intellectual Legacy of the Key Thinkers of Inter-Religious Dialogue in Indonesia. A Dissertation Submitted to the Temple University Graduate Board.

Ricklef, M. C. 2012. Islamization and Its Opponents in Java: A Political, Social and Cultural c. 1930 to be Present. University of Hawai Press

Schweizer, Margarete. 1983. Religion and social stratification in a Santri Village in Klaten, Central Java. Indonesia and the Malay World. Indonesia circle 11:32, 25-34.

Tirtosudarmo, Riwanto. 2018. From Geertz to Ricklef: The Changing Discourse on Javanese Religion and Its Wider Contexts. Framing Asian Studies: Geopolitics and Institutions. ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute, pp. 101-119

Published

2020-04-30

Issue

Section

ARTICLES