Marginalisasi Hukum Adat pada Masyarakat Adat The marginalization of adat law on adat communities

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14203/jmb.v22i1.936

Keywords:

marjinalisasi, hukum adat, masyarakat adat, pluralism hukum, Jawa Barat, marginalization, adat law, adat community, legal pluralism, West Java

Abstract

Tulisan ini berupaya melihat marjinalisasi adat, hukum adat serta implikasinya pada masyarakat adat. Dalam konteks Indonesia, meskipun Konstitusi dan beberapa aturan formal mengakui masyarakat adat, termasuk pranata adat, namun pada praktiknya telah terjadi upaya peminggiran jangka panjang. Ketidakkonsistenan kebijakan negara terhadap penerapan hukum adat memberikan peran dalam marjinalisasi komunitas adat pada berbagai tingkat. Melalui penelitian lapangan di tiga komunitas adat, Kasepuhan Ciptagelar, Kasepuhan Karang dan Kasepuhan Guradog di bagian Barat Jawa serta perspektif pluralism hukum, tulisan ini menjelaskan kurangnya pengakuan pada hukum adat memberikan pengaruh tertentu pada masyarakat adat, termasuk dalam pengaturan kemasyarakatan dan penghidupan. Studi ini pun membuktikan bahwa meskipun hukum adat secara praktis tidak diadopsi oleh negara, dalam beberapa kasus, masyarakat adat menemukan strategi untuk mempertahankan keyakinan dan praktik hukum adat di komunitasnya. Untuk itu, dalam konteks lebih luas, hal yang ingin disampaikan adalah, upaya marjinalisasi tidak mampu menghapuskan praktik adat dan hukum adat secara keseluruhan. Ketiga kasus memperlihatkan hingga saat ini praktik multi sistem hukum di masyarakat plural seperti Indonesia masih diterapkan, baik dalam situasi konflik maupun berdampingan. Selain itu, dalam mendiskusikan implementasi hukum di Indonesia dari perspektif masyarakat, pembedaan sistem formal dan informal di masyarakat tetap diperlukan dan unifikasi hukum hanya berfungsi dalam batas tertentu.

This paper attempts to see adat and adat law marginalizations, and the implications on adat peoples. In Indonesia, despite the recognition for adat peoples in the Constitution and formal rules, including adat institutions, in practice there has been a long-term marginalization. The inconsistent State’s policies towards the adat law application play a role in the marginalization of adat communities at various levels. Having field research in Ciptagelar, Karang and Guradog kasepuhan communities in western Java and legal pluralism perspective, this paper elucidates the lack of adat law recognition giving certain impacts on adat peoples, including on their social lives and livelihood. This study also proves that although adat law is not practically adopted by the State, in some cases, adat peoples find strategies to maintain their beliefs and adat law. Thus, in a broader context, the marginalization is unable to eliminate adat and adat law as a whole. To date the practice of multi-legal systems in a plural society, such as Indonesia, still takes place, both in conflict and coexistence. Moreover, in discussing Indonesia’s implementation of law from a community perspective, the distinction between formal and informal systems is still needed and legal unification only functions within certain limits

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Author Biography

tine suartina, Pusat Penelitian Kemasyarakatan dan Kebudayaan - LIPI

Peneliti Muda P2KK LIPI

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Sumber daring

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Peraturan Perundangan

Keputusan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan SK.6478/MENLHKPSKL/KUM.1/12/2016 tentang Penetapan Hutan Adat Kasepuhan Karang seluas 462 hektar di Desa Jagaraksa Kecamatan Muncang Kabupaten Lebak Provinsi Banten

Published

2020-04-30

Issue

Section

ARTICLES