Fragmentasi Umat dan Penciptaan Otoritas Keagamaan: Tanggapan terhadap ‘Islam Lokal’ dan ‘Islam Asing’ di Indonesia
Today, Islamist groups in Indonesia are apprehensive with Islam Nusantara, a catch-all term to refer to various expressions of localised Islam and socio-political thoughts and attitudes propagated by the country’s largest Muslim organisation, the Nahdlatul Ulama (NU). In response, the proponents of Islam Nusantara call for the unity of Indonesian Muslims to restrain what they perceive as an orchestrated effort to Arabize Indonesian Islam and eradicate local cultures and traditions. By looking at Banten and Madura through ethnographic fieldworks in between 2009-2018, this paper investigates the contestation between supporters of ‘local’ and ‘foreign’ Islam in defining their own Islam and making religious authority. While both supporters share the global viewpoints of Sunni Islam, the former is strongly characterised by local cultures and traditions that have been well preserved for centuries. The latter is well-known to display foreign-influenced, mostly Salafism from Gulf countries, expressions of Islam that include communal piety, religious commodification, Islamic populism, and popular Islamism. I argue that in both contemporary Banten and Madura, the defining of Islam and the making of religious authority have been frequently marked by conflicting responses in complex and fluctuated relationships. The relationships involve the phenomena of contestation between variants of Indonesian Islam and the fragmentation of the ummah.
Alimi, Moh. Yasir. “Local Repertoires of Reasoning and the Islamist Movement in Post-Authoritarian Indonesia”. Indonesia and the Malay World 42, No. 122 (2014): 24–42.
Atsushi, Ota. Changes of Regime and Social Dynamics in West Java: Society, State and the Outer World of Banten 1750-1830. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2006.
Bakhri, Mokh. Syaiful. Syaichona Kholil Bangkalan: Kiai Legendaris dari Madura. Pasuruan: Cipta Pustaka Utama, 2006.
Berger, Peter. A Far Glory: The Quest of Faith in an Age of Credulity. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
Bruinessen, Martin van. “Pesantren and Kitab Kuning: Continuity and Change in a Tradition of Religious Learning”. In Texts from the Islands: Oral and Written Traditions of Indonesia and the Malay World, edited by Wolfgang Marschall. Bern: Institute of Ethnology, University of Bern, 1994.
Bruinessen, Martin van. “Shari’a Court, Tarekat and Pesantren: Religious Institutions in the Banten Sultanate”. Archipel 50: Banten Histoire d’une Region (1995a): 165-199.
Bruinessen, Martin van. “Tarekat and Tarekat Teachers in Madurese Society”. In Across Madura Strait: The Dynamics of an Insular Society, edited by Kees van Dijk, Huub de Jonge, and Elly Touwen-Bouwsma. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1995b.
Bruinessen, Martin van. “Ghazwul Fikri or Arabization? Indonesian Muslim Responses to Globalization”. In Southeast Asian Muslims in the Era of Globalization, edited by Ken Miichi and Omar Farouk. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
Buehler, Michael. “Elite Competition and Changing State-Society Relations: Shari’a Policymaking in Indonesia”. In Beyond Oligarchy: Wealth, Power, and Contemporary Indonesian Politics, edited by Michele Ford and Thomas B. Pepinsky. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Southeast Asia Program Publications, 2014.
Dhofier, Zamakhsyari. Tradisi Pesantren: Studi tentang Pandangan Hidup Kiai. Jakarta: LP3ES, 1982.
Eickelman, Dale F. and James Piscatori. Muslim Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Fealy, Greg. “Consuming Islam: Commodified Religion and Aspirational Pietism in Contemporary Indonesia”. In Expressing Islam: Religious Life and Politics in Indonesia, edited by Greg Fealy and Sally White. Singapore: ISEAS, 2008.
Hall, Stuart and David Held. “Citizens and Citizenship”. In New Times: The Changing Face of Politics in the 1990s, edited by Stuart Hall and Martin Jacques. London: Verso, 1989.
Hamayotsu, Kikue. “Islam and Nation Building in Southeast Asia: Malaysia and Indonesia in Comparative Perspective”. Pacific Affairs 75, No. 3 (2002): 353-375.
Hasan, Noorhaidi. “The Making of Public Islam: Piety, Agency, and Commodification on the Landscape of the Indonesian Public Sphere. Contemporary Islam 3 (2009): 229-250.
Hefner, Robert W. “Introduction: Modernity and the Remaking of Muslim Politics”. In Remaking Muslim Politics: Pluralism, Contestation, Democratization, edited by Robert W. Hefner. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005.
Hicks, Jacqueline. “The Missing Link: Explaining the Political Mobilisation of Islam in Indonesia”. Journal of Contemporary Asia 42, No. 1 (2012): 39-66.
Hoesterey, James B. “Prophetic Cosmopolitanism: Islam, Pop Psychology, and Civic Virtue in Indonesia”. City & Society 24, Issue 1 (2012): 38-61.
Hoesterey, James B. and Marshall Clark. “Film Islami: Gender, Piety and Pop Culture in Post-Authoritarian Indonesia”. Asian Studies Review 36, Issue 2 (2012): 207-226.
Howell, J.D. “Modulations of Active Piety: Propessors and Televangelists as Promoters of Indonesian Sufism”. In Expressing Islam: Religious Life and Politics in Indonesia, edited by Greg Fealy and Sally White. Singapore: ISEAS, 2008.
Howell, J.D. “’Calling’ and ‘Training’: Role Innovation and Religious De-differentation in Commercialised Indonesian Islam”. Journal of Contemporary Religion 28, No. 3 (2013): 401-419.
Ismail, Salwa. Rethinking Islamist Politics: Culture, the State and Islamism. London and New York: I.B. Tauris, 2006.
Jonge, Huub de. Madura dalam Empat Zaman: Pedagang, Perkembangan Ekonomi, dan Islam: Suatu Studi Antropologi Ekonomi. Jakarta: Gramedia, 1989.
Kartodirdjo, Sartono. The Peasants’ Revolt of Banten in 1888, Its Conditions, Course, and Sequel: A Case Study of Social Movements in Indonesia. ‘s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, 1966.
Kitiarsa, Pattana. “Introduction: Asia’s Commodified Sacred Canopies”. In Religious Commodification in Asia: Marketing Gods, edited by Pattana Kitiarsa. London and New York: Routledge, 2008.
Kuntowijoyo. “Islam and Politics: The Local Sarekat Islam Movements in Madura, 1913-20”. In Islam and Society in Southeast Asia, edited by Taufik Abdullah and Sharon Siddique. Singapore: ISEAS, 1988.
Kuntowijoyo. Perubahan Sosial dalam Masyarakat Agraris Madura, 1850-1940. Yogyakarta: Matabangsa, 2002.
Lim, Francis Khek Gee. “Charismatic Technology”. In Mediating Piety: Technology and Religion in Contemporary Asia, edited by Francis Khek Gee Lim. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2009.
Lukens-Bull, Ronald. “Commodification of Religion and the ‘Religification’ of Commodities”. In Religious Commodifications in Asia: Marketing Gods, edited by Pattana Kitiarsa. London and New York: Routledge, 2008.
Macintyre, Andrew. Business and Politics in Indonesia. North Sydney, NSW: Allen and Unwin, 1991.
Millie, Julian et. al. “Post-authoritarian Diversity in Indonesia’s State-owned Mosques: a Manakiban Case Study”. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 45, Issue 2 (2014): 194-213.
Moertono, Soemarsaid. State and Statecraft in Old Java: a Study of the Later Mataram Period, 16th to 19th Century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, Southeast Asia Program, Cornell Modern Indonesia Project, 1981.
Morris, Eric Eugene. Islam and Politics in Aceh: A Study of Center-Periphery Relations in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983.
Mushaben, Joyce Marie. “Gender, HipHop and Pop-Islam: the Urban Identities of Muslim Youth in Germany”. Citizenship Studies 12, Issue 5 (2008): 507-526.
Muzakki, A. “Islam as a Symbolic Commodity: Transmitting and Consuming Islam through Public Sermons in Indonesia”. In Religious Commodifications in Asia: Marketing Gods, edited by Pattana Kitiarsa. London and New York: Routledge, 2008.
Pohl, Florian. “Islamic Education and Civil Society: Reflections on the Pesantren Tradition in Contemporary Indonesia”. Comparative Education Review 50, No. 3 (2006): 389-409.
Pribadi, Yanwar. “Jawara in Banten: Their Socio-Political Roles in the New Order Era 1966-1998”. MA Thesis, Department of Islamic Studies, Leiden University, 2008.
Pribadi, Yanwar. Islam, State and Society in Indonesia: Local Politics in Madura. London and New York: Routledge, 2018.
Pudjiastuti, Titik. “Sadjarah Banten: Suntingan Teks dan Terjemahan Disertai Tinjauan Aksara dan Amanat”. Ph.D. Thesis, Universitas Indonesia, 2000.
Rachman, Saifur. Biografi dan Karomah Kiai Kholil Bangkalan: Surat kepada Anjing Hitam. Jakarta: Pustaka Ciganjur, 2001.
Rakhmani, Inaya. “The Commercialization of Da’wah: Understanding Indonesian Sinetron and Their Portrayal of Islam”. The International Communication Gazette 76, No. 4-5 (2014): 340-359.
Ricklefs, M.C. Polarising Javanese Society: Islamic and Other Visions, c. 1830-1930. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2007.
Ricklefs, M.C. “Religious Elites and the State in Indonesia and Elsewhere: Why Takeovers are so Difficult and Usually Don’t Work”. In Encountering Islam: The Politics of Religious Identities in Southeast Asia, edited by Hui Yew-Foong. Singapore: ISEAS, 2013.
Saby, Yusny. “Islam and Social Change: The Role of the Ulama in Acehnese Society”. Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University, 1995.
Sakai, Minako and Amelia Fauzia. “Islamic Orientations in Contemporary Indonesia: Islamism on the Rise?”. Asian Ethnicity 15, No. 1 (2014): 41-61.
Salvatore, Armando and Dale Eickelman. “Preface: Pubic Islam and the Common Good”. In Public Islam and the Common Good, edited by Armando Salvatore and Dale Eickelman. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2004.
Tan, Charlene. Islamic Education and Indoctrination: The Case in Indonesia. London and New York: Routledge, 2011.
Tanuwidjaja, Sunny. “Political Islam and Islamic Parties in Indonesia: Critically Assessing the Evidence of Islam’s Political Decline”. Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs 32, No. 1 (2010): 29-49.
Tihami, M.A. “Kiyai dan Jawara di Banten: Studi tentang Agama, Magi, dan Kepemimpinan di Desa Pasanggrahan Serang, Banten”. MA Thesis, Universitas Indonesia, 1992.
Touwen-Bouwsma, Elly. “The Ulama of Madura: Rise and Expansion of a Religious Regime”. In Faith and Polity on Religion and Politics, edited by Mart Bax, Peter Kloos and Adrianus Koster. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1992.
Tsing, Anna Lowenhaupt. “The News in the Provinces”. In Cultural Citizenship in Island Southeast Asia, edited by Renato Rosaldo. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 2003.
Wilson, Ian Douglas. “The Politics of Inner Power: The Practice of Pencak Silat in West Java”. Ph.D Thesis, Murdoch University, 2003.
Woodward, Mark. Java, Indonesia and Islam. Dordecht etc.: Springer, 2011.
Zainalfattah. Sedjarah Tjaranya Pemerintahan di Daerah-daerah di Kepulauan Madura dengan Hubungannya. Pamekasan: The Paragon Press, 1951.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya
Pusat Penelitian Kemasyarakatan dan Kebudayaan - Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (P2KK-LIPI)
Research Center for Society and Culture - Indonesian Institute of Sciences
Widya Graha Lantai VI & IX
Jl. Jend. Gatot Subroto No.10 Jakarta Selatan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License