<-- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> EKONOMI POLITIK PENERBITAN IZIN USAHA PERTAMBANGAN (IUP) DI INDONESIA: METODE DAN PROBLEM | Ansori, Phd | Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya

EKONOMI POLITIK PENERBITAN IZIN USAHA PERTAMBANGAN (IUP) DI INDONESIA: METODE DAN PROBLEM

Mohammad Hasan Ansori, Phd

Abstract


Kebijakan Desentralisasi Pascareformasi di Indonesia sejak tahun 1999 secara prinsip dicirikan dengan delegasi kekuasaan secara signifikan dari pemerintah pusat ke pemerintah daerah, termasuk kekuasaan terkait penerbitan Izin Usaha Pertambangan (IUP). Sayangnya, pendelegasian kekuasaan ini tidak disertai dengan persiapan yang seharusnya, seperti berbagi regulasi otoritas pusat dan kapasitas pemerintah daerah. Kondisi tersebut kemudian berdampak munculnya berbagai kasus tumpang tindih IUP. Tulisan ini mengkaji interaksi dinamis antara faktor-faktor ekonomi dan politik yang menjadi sumber konkret tumpang tindih IUP. Tulisan ini menunjukkan adanya tiga model mekanisme yang menfasilitasi proses ekonomi politik dalam proses penerbitan IUP, yaitu pemilukada, tahapan-tahapan prosedural penerbitan IUP, dan setoran rutin. Selain itu, empat masalah umum yang teridentifikasi menjadi fondasi bekerjanya mekanisme tersebut, yaitu balas budi politik, problem loyalitas, problem kroni dan koalisi dan problem wani piro (berani bayar berapa). Ekonomi politik penerbitan IUP berkaitan dengan merebaknya korupsi di sektor pertambangan. Data studi ini secara primer diambil dari berbagai wawancara semi-terbuka dengan berbagai informan dan data-data sekunder, termasuk laporan dan dokumen publik dan pemerintah, publikasi akademis, dan surat kabar serta majalah, baik nasional maupun lokal. The Indonesia’s post-reform decentralization since 1999 is primarily featured by the significant delegation of power from central to local governments, including the issued of Mining Business License (IUP). Unfortunately, this delegation is not accompanied with proper preparation, both in terms of central authority’s regulations and local government capacity. Consequently, this causes the overlapping of IUP. This paper draws the dynamic of economic and political factors triggering the overlapping of IUP. This paper indicates three mechanism models facilitating the political economy process in issuing IUP, namely local election, procedural stages in issuing IUP and regular deposits. Moreover, this paper highlights four common problems underlying those mechanism, namely reciprocal altruism in politics (balas budi politik), loyalty, cronyism and coalition, and the practice of “how much you can pay” (wani piro). The political economy process of issuing IUP is related with the increasing number of corruption in mining sector. The data are primarily collected from qualitative structured open-ended interviews and secondary resources, including public and governmental records and documents, academic publications, as well as local and national newspapers and magazines.

Keywords


pertambangan; Izin Usaha Pertambangan (IUP); ekonomi politik; desentralisasi; mining; Mining Business License (IUP); political economy; decentralization

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14203/jmb.v18i3.573

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