<-- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> UNDERGROUND ECONOMY DAN KEJAHATAN BIROKRAT | Darmawan | Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya

UNDERGROUND ECONOMY DAN KEJAHATAN BIROKRAT

Mohammad Kemal Darmawan

Abstract


To comprehend the reality of this underground economy certainly requires an understanding of the upstream and the downstream network of the activity. Several studies about underground economy have conducted in many countries indicate that this economic activity has involved many actors. Underground economy is also a complex phenomenon, present to an important extent even in the most industrialized and developed economies. People engage in underground economic activity for a variety of reasons; among the most important are, to avoid government actions, most notably taxation and regulation. This paper is also concerned with the bureaucrats crime. It uses the context of the garment import sector in Indonesia to further analyze issues relating to corruption in both private and public sector. The author argues that blaming the bureaucrats or the private businesses alone would not do justice to the problem. Neither will it help in finding appropriate policies to solve this important problem in governance and development. Keywords: underground economy, corruption, bureaucrats crime, government, tax reform.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adam, Markus, C. and Victor Ginsburgh. 1985. “The Effects of

Irregular Markets on Economy,” Working Paper 87–9,

Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Philadelphia (N. J.).

Asea, Patrick K. 1996. The Informal Sector: Baby or Bath Water?

Carnegie-RochesterConference Series on Public Policy 45.,

pp. 163–171.crossref

Bardhan, Pranab. 1997. “Corruption and Development: A Review of

Issues,” Journal of Economic Literature, 35, pp. 1320–1346.

Bhattacharyya, D.K. 1993. How Does the “Hidden Economy” Affect

Consumers`Expenditure? An Econometric Study of the U.K.

(1960–1984). International Institute of Public Finance (IIPF),

Berlin.

Bhattacharyya, D.K. 1999. “On the Economic Rationale of Estimating

the Hidden Economy,” The Economic Journal, Vol. 109, No.

, pp. 348–359.crossref

Feige, Edgar L. (ed.). 1988. The Underground Economies. Tax Evasion

and Information Distortion. Cambridge, New York,

Melbourne, Cambridge University Press.

Feige, Edgar L. 1994. The Underground Economy and the Currency

Enigma, Supplement to Public Finance/ Finances Publiques,

, pp. 119–136.

Friedman, E., Johnson, S., Kaufmann, D. and Zoido-Lobaton. 1999.

Dodging the Grabbing Hand: The Determinants of Unofficial

Activity in 69 Countries, Discussion Paper, Washington D.C.,

World Bank.

Giles, David, E.A. 1999a. “Measuring the Hidden Economy:

Implications for Econometric Modeling,” The Economic

Journal, Vol. 109, No. 456, pp.370–380.crossref

Houston, John F. 1987. Estimating the Size and Implications of the

Underground Economy. Cambridge, MIT Press.

Johnson, Simon; Kaufmann, Daniel and Pablo Zoido-Lobaton. 1998a.

Regulatory Discretion and the Unofficial Economy. The

American Economic Review, Vol. 88, No. 2, pp. 387–392.

Johnson, Simon; Kaufmann, Daniel and Pablo Zoido-Lobaton. 1998b.

Corruption, Public Finances and the Unofficial Economy.

Washington, D.C., The World Bank, Discussion Paper.

Johnson, Simon; Kaufmann, Daniel; and Andrei Shleifer. 1997. The

Unofficial Economy in Transition, Brookings Papers on

Economic Activity, Fall, Washington D.C.crossref

Kaufmann, Daniel and Jeffrey Sachs. 1998. “Determinants of

Corruption,” unpublished manuscript, Harvard University.

Lippert, Owen and Michael Walker (eds.). 1997. The Underground

Economy: GlobalEvidences of its Size and Impact, Vancouver,

B.C., The Frazer Institute.

Loayza, Norman V. 1996. The Economics of the Informal Sector: a

Simple Model andSome Empirical Evidence from Latin

America. Carnegie-Rochester Conference Serieson Public

Policy 45, pp. 129–162.

Mogensen, Gunnar V.; Kvist, Hans K.; Körmendi, Eszter and Soren

Pedersen, 1995, The Economics of the Invisible Hand. New

York : Simon and Schuster Book.

Pommerehne, Werner W. and Friedrich Schneider. 1985. The Decline of

Productivity : Markets and State. New York : The Free Press.

Romer, Paul. 1994. “New Goods, Old Theory, and the Welfare Costs of

Trade Restrictions,” Journal of Development Economics, Vol.

, No. 1, pp. 5–38.

Rose-Ackermann, Susan. 1999. Corruption and Government: Causes,

Consequences and Reforms, Cambridge (Mass.), Cambridge

University Press.

Schneider, Friedrich. 1997. “The Shadow Economies of Western

Europe,” Journal of the Institute of Economic Affairs, Vol.

, No. 3, pp. 42–48.

Schneider, Friedrich. 1998a. “Further Empirical Results of the Size of

the Shadow Economy of 17 OECD Countries Over Time,”

Paper to be presented at the 54 Congress of the IIPF Cordowa,

Argentina, and discussion paper, Department of Economics,

University of Linz, Linz, Austria.

Shadow Economy in Denmark. 1994. Measurement and Results, Study

No. 3, Copenhagen, The Rockwool Foundation Research Unit.

Smith, Philip. 1994. “Assessing the Size of the Underground

Economy”, The Canadian Enterprise Institute Journal. No.

pp. 155.

Tanzi, Vito. 1998. “Corruption Around the World: Causes,

Consequences, Scope, and Cures,” IMF Working Paper 63,

pp. 1–39.

Tanzi, Vito. 1999. “Uses and Abuses of Estimates of the Underground

Economy,” The Economic Journal, Vol. 109, No. 456, pp.

–340.

Disertasi dan Laporan Penelitian:

Chotim, Erna Ermawati. 2010. “Institusionalisasi, Eksklusi dan Inklusi

Sosial pada Underground Economy di Indonesia (Studi pada

Sektor Tekstil dan Produk Tekstil di Sentra Cipadu Jaya,

Tangerang)”, Disertasi, Departemen Sosiologi, Fakultas Ilmu

Sosial dan Ilmu Politik–Universitas Indonesia.

Dermawan, Mohammad Kemal dan Erna Ermawati Chotim. 2009.

“Underground Economy dan Kemiskinan”. Laporan Penelitian

Hibah Strategis Nasional, Tahun 2009, Universitas Indonesia.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14203/jmb.v12i2.113

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Indexed by

Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya

Pusat Penelitian Kemasyarakatan dan Kebudayaan - Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (P2KK-LIPI)
Research Center for Society and Culture - Indonesian Institute of Sciences
Widya Graha Lantai VI & IX
Jl. Jend. Gatot Subroto No.10 Jakarta Selatan
12710

  • ISSN 1410-4830 (print)
  • e-ISSN 2502-1966 (online)
  • Accreditation : No. 21/E/KPT/2018 (Kemenristekdikti)
  • Creative Commons License
    This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License